Diabetes – Causes, Sign and Symptoms and Treatment
What is Diabetes?
The term diabetes mellitus comes from the Greek and means “honey-sweet flow”, an allusion to the main symptom of diabetes is the sugar contained in the urine. Diabetes mellitus is a disease term for various forms of glucose metabolism disorder. Cause of diabetes can be either insulin deficiency or insulin resistance.
If the blood sugar level permanently increases, this damages the blood vessels, which in turn can lead to complications. These include heart attack, stroke , circulatory disorders of the legs and feet, changes in the retina, renal disorders and erectile dysfunction. Damaged nerves may numbness and cause numbness.
Forms and classifications
Diabetes mellitus type 1:- The mellitus Type 1 diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent (IDDM), because it manifests itself already in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood and individuals must make their lives insulin.
The cause is high a probability autoimmune antibodies process in which the body’s immune system destroys the β-cells of the pancreas.
Type 2 diabetes
about 90 percent of diabetics suffer from type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is also called non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes because it concerned earlier mainly elderly. Meanwhile, those affected are getting younger. This type is part of the so-called metabolic syndrome. For him the body’s insulin production is obtained, initially even usually increased.
The insulin secretion (insulin) is disturbed, often added to feed rapidly absorbable carbohydrates. The insulin concentration in the blood increases in the same time decreases the number of insulin receptors and thus the insulin sensitivity of the target cells. This is called insulin resistance.
Gestational diabetes (GDM)
This form of diabetes develops in 3% of pregnant women in the last trimester of pregnancy and normalizes usually after childbirth. However, there is an increased residual risk for developing diabetes mellitus of the nut. The child is usually brought by surgical birth to the world and has a significantly higher birth weight of more than 4500g (overgrowth / macrosomia). Dyspnea syndrome, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and jaundice (jaundice) in newborns are not uncommon.
Diabetes Sign and Symptoms
For type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 occurs suddenly. There is an increased urine output, although the person concerned increased drinking usually to compensate for fluid loss again. Increasing metabolic disorder is accompanied by nausea and weakness to consciousness disorders. Often diabetes mellitus type 1 patients despite abundant food intake quite slim.
For Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 develops over time and is often diagnosed late. General symptoms such as weakness and derating go with fungal infections of the skin, itching, blurred vision, and recurrent urinary tract infections (eg cystitis accompanied). In addition, most sufferers have dyslipidemia, hypertension (hypertension) and obesity (obesity) on. Compared to type 1 diabetes occur in the type 2 diabetes, the characteristic symptoms such as thirst or as increased urination (polyuria) later on.
Treatment of diabetes
Oral drug therapy
The oral drug therapy is indicated in type 2 diabetics if weight loss despite the normalization of blood glucose levels is absent. The production of the body’s own insulin by the pancreas is a prerequisite for the implementation of the oral drug therapy. The following active ingredients for oral therapy available:
Sulfonylureas (in Rp or Rp Gluborid® Euglucon®) are the most widely used drug in the oral drug therapy. It stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas and acts as hypoglycemic. In the advanced stage of diabetes with insulin, a combination is possible. It may as gastrointestinal discomfort or allergies cause side effects. Incorrect taking a blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) might be the result.
Biguanides (. Metformin) delaying carbohydrate absorption from the intestine. At the same time they promote glucose uptake into the muscles, inhibit the formation of glucose, such as lactic acid in the liver, and facilitate weight loss, since they reduce the appetite. However, they are only prescribed by lactate increase in the blood in some cases due to the risk of changes in the blood and metabolic acidosis.
Insulin therapy is indicated for all type 1 diabetes and in type 2 diabetes when diet, exercise therapy and oral antidiabetic medication are not enough.
They are used in cases of acute metabolic disorders, as well as intensified conventional insulin therapy. They look after 15 to 30 minutes and have their effect peaks after one to two hours. After four to six hours no effect is observed.
Long-term insulins are used in intensified insulin therapy are used. Your action time begins only after three to four hours and lasts up to 28 hours on.
Mixed insulins are a mixture of normal and delay insulin. They are available in various mixing ratios. The main application is the conventional insulin therapy.